福州朗阁>托福考试>托福听力笔记之四大技巧与范例

托福听力笔记之四大技巧与范例

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:30:27
  • 编辑:fz

朗阁专家把笔记符号分为以下四种:数学符号、惯用符号、图形符号、趋向符号。

  托福记笔记技巧一:少线多指

  朗阁托福培训专家分析发现,在很多情况下,考生们不自觉的会在用什么符号上停顿,这就代表了在延误时间。如果在自己本来就熟悉的中英文之外,又编出一套自己不熟悉的文字编码使用,会导致需要想一想用哪个符号来表示,这样会适得其反。因此,我们要灵活的运用笔记符号,用一个符号表示多种英文含义。

  朗阁专家把笔记符号分为以下四种:

  数学符号

  ∵:因为,由于,幸亏;because, due to, thanks to, …

  ∴:所以,因此,结果;so, therefore, consequently, …

  =:相同,一致,公平;the same as, equal to, similar to, …

  ≠:不同,不公平,有差距;difference, disparity, unfair, …

  ≈:大约,大概;about, almost, nearly, approximate, …

  >:大于,超过,高于;surpass, exceed, more than, superior to, …

  <:少于,低于;less than, inferior to, …

  +:另外,多;plus, add, moreover, besides, …

  -:减去,除去;minus, deduct, except, …

  α:行动,行为,法案;action, act, … (because of the pronunciation)

  ﹛﹜:在……之中,在……之内;among, within, …

  ∈:属于,源于;belong to, …

  ×:错的,不好的,负面的;wrong, mistake, bad, negative, …

  √:对的,好的,积极的;correct, good, positive, affirmative, …

  惯用符号

  ::看,想,说,评论;speak, express, think, …

  ?:疑问,疑惑:question, problem, issue, inquiry, interrogate, ask, puzzle, query, confused, mystery, …

  !:危险,警告,当心,注意;dangerous, warning, alarming, hazardous, jeopardy, watch out, certainty, of course, …

  ~:贸易,交换,交流,关于,代替;trade, exchange, communication, relationship, …

  _:这个,强调;(用于在一个确定单词下划线,加强语气,或者强调重点)

  e.g:举例,例如,比如;for example, such as, …

  图形符号(此种符号考生可以继续自己扩展)

  ⊙:会议,聚会;conference, convention, session, seminar, council, congress, meeting, assembly, gathering, union, association, convocation, …

  ☆:重点,中心,重要的,杰出的;important, key, critical, meaningful, essential, eventful, outstanding, notable, great, wonderful, emphasize, stress, chief, main, pay attention to, fantastic, …

  *:特征,特点,代表;feature, character, symbol, sign, mark, specialty, represent, typify, on behalf of, stand for, …

  ^:领导,顶点,顶级;top, head, tip, peak, climax, leader, express, queen, ruler, monitor, minister, king, captain, …

  $:美元,钱,富裕的;dollar, money, rich, well-off, …

  ┛:过去;in the past, long before, past time, …

  ┗:将来;in future, will be, going to do, …

  趋向符号

  ↑:增加,提高,升级,升职;increase, improve, grow, advance, go up, update, promote, bring in, climb up, rise, raise, lift, …

  ↓:降低,下降,贬值,减少;decrease, decline, reduce, fall, sink, weaken, lower, cut down, fall off, drop, …

  托福记笔记技巧二:少横多竖

  朗阁专家建议考生应该采用从上往下的阶梯结构记录,尽量少用通常书写时的横向记录。因为阶梯结构形象的体现出上下文的逻辑结构,简化了考生的思维过程,方便考生记笔记。其次,可以方便考生在做题的时候清晰的找到笔记的重点和逻辑关系。

  例如:

  原文为:It spreads from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Its northern boundary is the frozen Arctic, and its southern, the American border. Its population is 25 million.

  (此时对于表示方位的时候,我们可以用指南针方向表示东西南北)

  笔记应为:

  Pac Atlan

  N 冰/Arc

  S ~ US

  人 25mil

  原文为:Since its founding some 360 years ago, Harvard has nurtured a great number of outstanding political leaders, scientists, writers and businessmen, including six of the American Presidents and over thirty Nobel Prize winners.

  笔记应为:

  Harv/ 360y┛

  优/pli

  Sci

  文

  企

  { US pr&30+ Nobel}

  这样的笔记是不是就很简单很容易的记下来了几句话呢?考生只要肯多做练习,一定能够掌握做整篇conversation, 甚至整篇lecture的笔记。

  托福记笔记技巧三:快速书写

  朗阁专家指出在时间很紧的新托福听力部分中,必须发展快速书写系统,听力笔记完全是给自己看的,而且只需几分钟之内能看懂就行,很多字母和汉字经过简化之后,笔画减少,并不影响确认。需要注意的是,这里讲的不是潦草,而是除了实际笔记不得不潦草之外,花一些时间,把练习中或者笔记中常用的字琢磨一下,看看可以怎样减少笔画,或者梳理笔画,一笔成字。

  托福记笔记技巧四:明确结束

  在新托福考试中,无论是conversation还是lecture, 两个讲话者或者是一个独白者,都是按照句群来讲话的,意思是,在听力中,不会是混杂在一起的一堆杂乱无章的ideas, 也不会是整个听力都在讲一个事情。因此,上一段和下一段之间,必须有明确的界限,才能保证我们做题时候的速度。每道听力考题的顺序都是和听力的每个 subject的顺序是一样的,如果笔记顺序得当,会让我们做题时省时省力,比如做到第三题的时候,我们就去找笔记上的第三个或者第三个前后的main point。

  除此之外,朗阁专家建议考生在做笔记的时候,趁着句群结束和下一个句群开始的空隙,那段时间非常宝贵,往往可以用来补充笔记。增强笔记的连贯性和可读性,例如多加数字符号或者箭头,适当的整理已经写下来的笔记。另外,如果觉得划线表示终点不够清楚,可以改为一个圆圈再画一道横线。

  托福笔记示范:

  考生在面对Lecture的时候,一定不可以紧张,要保持沉着冷静的态度,注意听力中的重读单词,在听到signal word(转折词)的时候,运用自己的逻辑把听到的重点单词串联成句,从而连贯成一整篇lecture。

  TPO 2 Lecture 3 Philosophy 节选(30秒)

  Professor: OK. Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle—Aristotle’s ethical theory. What Aristotle’s ethical theory is all about is this: he’s trying to show you how to be happy—what true happiness is.

  Now, why is he interested in human happiness? It’s not just because it’s something that all people want to aim for. It’s more than that. But to get there we need to first make a very important distinction. Let me introduce a couple of technical terms: extrinsic value and intrinsic value. To understand Aristotle’s interest in happiness, you need to understand this distinction.

  Some things we aim for and value, not for themselves but for what they bring about in addition to themselves. If I value something as a means to something else, then it has what we will call Extrinsic value. Other things we desire and hold to be valuable for themselves alone. If we value something not as a means to something else, but for its own sake, let us say that it has Intrinsic value.

  上面的红色单词为重读单词,是我们要尽量在笔记上体现出来的,用尽量简短的字符或者缩写来表示;黑体单词为signal word(转折词),是需要我们开始分类或者换行记笔记的标志,参考笔记如下:

  哲er: Arist ? happy (true)

  Dis term: Ex val: sth. els

  In val: self alone(× else, own)

  只要在半分钟之内可以写出上述简短的笔记,我们就可以迅速的做出主旨题,如下:

  What is the main purpose of the lecture?

  A.To illustrate the importance of extrinsic values

  B.To explain Aristotle’s views about the importance of teaching

  C.To explain why people change what they value

  D.To discuss Aristotle’s views about human happiness

  通过笔记我们可以看出,lecture在一开始就指出了,Aristotle的观点就是TRUE happiness。浏览选项我们可以判断,D的中心词就是human happiness, 而其他的选项都存在混淆单词,比如A

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