福州朗阁>托福考试>新托福综合写作逻辑关系剖析

新托福综合写作逻辑关系剖析

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:30:31
  • 编辑:fz

新托福考试以其综合性和学术难度一直被视为能够体现学生英语用语能力和实际能力的一项重要考试。而在写作部分中,综合写作中的听力内容给听力薄弱的考生们增加了写作部分的难度。但实际上,因为当科考试以写作而非听力为主,在托福写作的integrated writing部分对听力的要求并不如实际的托福听力考试部分高的。并且,由于阅读话题与听力的话题一致,且大部分的听力与阅读部分是观点相左的情况,因此对阅读材料的理解及观点把握就给我们提供了相当多而且重要的提示。

朗阁海外考试研究中心

  新托福考试以其综合性和学术难度一直被视为能够体现学生英语用语能力和实际能力的一项重要考试。而在写作部分中,综合写作中的听力内容给听力薄弱的考生们增加了写作部分的难度。但实际上,因为当科考试以写作而非听力为主,在托福写作的integrated writing部分对听力的要求并不如实际的托福听力考试部分高的。并且,由于阅读话题与听力的话题一致,且大部分的听力与阅读部分是观点相左的情况,因此对阅读材料的理解及观点把握就给我们提供了相当多而且重要的提示。

  朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家们认为,通过对阅读要点的充分提取以及阅读和听力之间逻辑关系的系统把握与分析,考生能够很好地预测和推断听力部分的内容,这能够为充分把握听力要点提供重要的依据。本文主要以一篇科学研究话题的综合写作习题作为范本,指导考生们如何从阅读部分把握大致的听力观点。

  一、解题步骤:快速阅读+听力预测

  首先是3分钟的阅读时间。此部分需要考生做一个2次阅读的步骤。第一步先抓取主要观点也就是MAIN ARGUE和3个TS句。这个时间大约在45秒内可以完成。做好框架的笔记结构。文章的论点是什么,从哪几个方面入手等信息。第二遍再读细节,然后把关键词如何联系和论证的用一些符号联系起来。这样阅读部分的完成时间一般在2分钟30秒之内能够完成。剩下如果还有剩余时间同学可以稍微考虑听力可能从哪几个方面来进行反驳,这样建立一个假想的听力体系,我们在听力的过程中就能够对号入座,大大提高正确率和关键词的提取速度和定位的准确度。

  二、范例解析

  READING:

  Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an internal temperature of 37℃, no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosaurs were reptiles, and modern reptiles are not endotherms, it was long assumed that dinosaurs were not endotherms. However, dinosaurs differ in many ways from modern reptiles, and there is now considerable evidence that dinosaurs were, in fact, endotherms.

  Polar dinosaurs

  One reason for believing that dinosaurs were endotherms is that dinosaur fossils have been discovered in Polar Regions. Only animals that can maintain a temperature well above that of the surrounding environment could be active in such cold climates.

  Leg position and movement

  There is a connection between endothermy and the position and movement of the legs. The physiology of endothermy allows sustained physical activity, such as running. But running is efficient only if an animal’s legs are positioned underneath its body, not at the body’s side, as they are for crocodiles and many lizards. The legs of all modern endotherms are underneath the body, and so were the legs of dinosaurs. This strongly suggests that dinosaurs were endotherms.

  Haversian canals

  There is also a connection between endothermy and bone structure. The bones of endotherms usually include structures called Haversian canals. These canals house nerves and blood vessels that allow the living animal to grow quickly; and rapid body growth is in fact a characteristic of endothermy. The presence of Haversian canals in bone is a strong indicator that the animal is an endotherm, and fossilized bones of dinosaurs are usually dense with Haversian canals.

  从以上这篇阅读短文里,我们可以提取到主要的论证观点(也就是main argue)是:恐龙为恒温动物。另外,文中有提出三点的支撑点,它们的逻辑关系分别是这样的:

  1. 常识:极地只有恒温动物,证据:极地发现了恐龙化石,得出:恐龙=恒温动物;

  2. 常识:恒温动物腿在身体下方,证据:恐龙腿也在身体下方,得出:恐龙=恒温动物;

  3. 常识:恒温动物有哈弗森管,证据:恐龙有哈弗森管,得出:恐龙=恒温动物。

  本短文难度不高,道理也非常浅显易懂。朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家们认为,我们应把重点放在证据的逻辑链上,这样才能有效地帮助我们去理解听力。

  第一点的逻辑关系是完全对等逻辑。因为极地只有恒温动物,而极地出现了恐龙,所以恐龙是恒温动物。那么推翻这一点的逻辑则有以下的几点情况:

  1. 恐龙不在极地;

  2. 极地有非恒温动物;

  3. 即便生活在极地,也有其他情况出现。

  所以把握了这点后,我们迅速做出以上推测,在听力部分可以按照推测的内容来做选择,对于听力偏弱的考生,只要听到适当的关联词就能推出逻辑点了。

  第二点的支持观点逻辑存在漏洞,因为腿长在身体下部是恒温动物的“必要不充分条件”。即恒温动物具备腿长在身体下部的特征,但是这无法推出腿长在身体下侧即为恒温动物。此漏洞在阅读过程里需要考生首先能做此判断,如果无法的话,也可以在听力部分的提示下了解打破该条件的办法。所以如果我们提前在预测到听力部分内容的时候,一定是要打碎这个逻辑链的。

  第三点的逻辑同样是:有哈弗森管可以保护血管和神经可以快速生长,因此哈弗森管是恒温动物的重要标志。而恐龙恰好有哈弗森管。那么,听力在反驳观点的时候一般也是以下两种情况:

  1. 打碎逻辑链使得这个观点不成立,即恐龙没有哈弗森管或者哈弗森管不是恒温动物的体现

  2. 建立新的证据或者逻辑链来打破原有的逻辑关系(这点需要听力时细节把握)

  以下是听力文本,可以给考生作为参考,探究是否逻辑链被瓦解的实际情况:

  Many scientists have problems with the arguments you read in the passage. They don’t think those arguments prove that dinosaurs were endotherms.

  Take the polar dinosaur argument. When dinosaurs lived, even the Polar Regions, where dinosaur fossils have been found, were much warmer than today, warm enough during part of the year for animals that were not endotherms to live.(恐龙不在极地生存,打断恐龙是极地动物逻辑链) And during the months when the Polar Regions were cold, the so-called polar dinosaurs could have migrated to warmer areas or hibernated like many modern reptiles do. So the presence of dinosaur fossils in Polar Regions doesn’t prove the dinosaurs were endotherms.

  Well, what about the fact those dinosaurs have their legs placed under their bodies, not out to the side like crocodiles. That doesn’t necessarily mean dinosaurs were high-energy endotherms built for running. There is another explanation for having legs under the body.This body structure supports more weight, so with the legs under their bodies, dinosaurs can grow to a very large size.(腿部功能非跑步等维持温度性功能,打断逻辑链) Being large had advantages for dinosaurs, so we don’t need the idea of endothermy and running to explain why dinosaurs evolved to have their legs under their bodies.

  Ok, so how about bone structure? Many dinosaur bones do have Haversian canals, and that is true. The dinosaur bones also have growth rings. Growth rings are thickening of the bone that indicates periods of time when the dinosaurs weren’t rapidly growing. These growth rings are evidence that dinosaurs stopped growing or grew more slowly during cooler periods. This pattern of periodic growth, you know, rapid growth followed by no growth or slow growth, and then rapid growth again, is characteristic of animals that are not endotherms.(提出新的论证,即生长环来推翻哈弗森管的提示,属于外部提出新的观点推翻逻辑链)Animals that maintain a constant body temperature year-round as true endotherms do grow rapidly even when the environment becomes cool.

  以上的第一点满足了我们推测的第一种,而第二点的反驳部分则直接提出了腿部长在下面有其他作用的结论,这就不能够构成恐龙是恒温动物的充分条件。第三点的反驳是以提出新观点的方式来打破原有证据。此点属于推测中无法预测的,需要考生在听力的时候通过关键词的提取得出。

  通过以上的范例,我们可以得出,综合写作中这类科学类的题目,可以建立在推测的基础上进行练习。在熟练了推测方法后,考生在听力部分则能够快速定位,从而为高质量的写作提供了精准的素材。这也是综合写作得高分的重要前提。


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