- 2018/1/22 11:30:36
其实不论是托福、雅思或者GMAT、GRE阅读，从实质上讲基本考察的都是information analysis， 即信息处理能力。这种能力要求我们要么从宏观的框架出发，要么就从微观的细节出发去寻求答案。而托福阅读在我看来，同学们在细节的处理上是更容易出错的。本文就从同学们平时的高频出错题的分析出发，让大家了解到细节处理在托福阅读中的重要性。
【例题1】Perhaps so much time has passed that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images， but their mystique only adds to their importance. Certainly a great art exists， and by its existence reveals that ancient human beings were not without intelligence， skill， and sensitivity.
Online Test： Lascaux Cave Paintings
According to paragraph 6， why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered？
○ Keeping the paintings a mystery will increase their importance.
○ The artists hid their tools with great intelligence and skill.
○ Too many years have gone by since the images were painted.
○ Answering the question is not very important to scholars.
【错误原因】选A其实不难题解，大多数同学是因为看到文中这句’but their mystique only adds to their importance’而对应到这个答案的。这也是做细节信息题时老师经常会讲到的解题思路，即“同义转换”。于是几乎一模一样的原文和选项的转换就让同学们轻易掉入了这个陷阱之中。
【正确解析】这道题会选错的根本原因是同学们忽略了一件答题时非常重要的事情，那就是审题。并不是原题中告诉我们第几段，我们就闷着头把这段话全部读完，找到和某个选项最类似的表达就可以了。因为狡猾的ETS往往会在选项中放置这样一类答案“请问你几岁啊？”“我今年读高二。”虽然回答的也都是事实，但其实答非所问。这道题我们回过头去看题目，问的是“为什么关于这些画的问题从来没有被回答过？”问的是原因，那么我们就去精准定位找原因，问题对应到原文的’there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images’， 在这句话的前半部分，有这样一个词组so.。.that.。.， 于是我们就应该知道原因就在这里了。
【例题2】【Paragraph 1】Since 1980， the use of wind to produce electricity has been growing rapidly. In 1994 there were nearly 20，000 wind turbines worldwide， most grouped in clusters called wind farms that collectively produced 3，000 megawatts of electricity. Most were in Denmark （which got 3 percent of its electricity from wind turbines） and California （where 17，000 machines produced 1 percent of the state’s electricity， enough to meet the residential needs of a city as large as San Francisco）。 In principle， all the power needs of the United States could be provided by exploiting the wind potential of just three states—North Dakota， South Dakota， and Texas.
【Paragraph 3】Wind power has a significant cost advantage over nuclear power and has become competitive with coal-fired power plants in many places. With new technological advances and mass production， projected cost declines should make wind power one of the world’s cheapest ways to produce electricity. In the long run， electricity from large wind farms in remote areas might be used to make hydrogen gas from water during periods when there is less than peak demand for electricity. The hydrogen gas could then be fed into a storage system and used to generate electricity when additional or backup power is needed.
【Paragraph 4】Wind power is most economical in areas with steady winds. In areas where the wind dies down， backup electricity from a utility company or from an energy storage system becomes necessary. Backup power could also be provided by linking wind farms with a solar cell， with conventional or pumped-storage hydropower， or with efficient natural-gas-burning turbines. Some drawbacks to wind farms include visual pollution and noise， although these can be overcome by improving their design and locating them in isolated areas.
Online Test： Electricity from Wind
Based on the information in paragraph 3 and paragraph 4， what can be inferred about the states of North Dakota， South Dakota， and Texas mentioned at the end of paragraph 1？
○ They rely largely on coal-fired power plants.
○ They contain remote areas where the winds rarely die down.
○ Over 1 percent of the electricity in these states is produced by wind farms.
○ Wind farms in these states are being expanded to meet the power needs of the United States.
【正确解析】其实，如果同学们仔细审题就会发现，题干里对大家的提示还是挺明显的。首先从infer看出这是一道推理题，而推理的对象来自文章的第一段，但是答案应该得出自文章的第三和第四段。于是我们就自然地找到这样一条解题路径：第一段定位推理对象—明确推理对象性质或特点—第三、四段综合寻找有关细节—将所有细节结合推论。按照这个思路，我们从第一段得知这些州都是适合风力发电的地方，然后到三、四段找到适合风力发电的地点具备in remote areas和with steady winds两个特点（文中都有表示地点的词作提示），最后将两个信息点结合起来就可以推断出B选项了。
【例题1】The United States in the 1800’s was full of practical， hardworking people who did not consider the arts—from theater to painting—useful occupations. In addition， the public’s attitude that European art was better than American art both discouraged and infuriated American artists. In the early 1900’s there was a strong feeling among artists that the United States was long overdue in developing art that did not reproduce European traditions. Everybody agreed that the heart and soul of the new country should be reflected in its art. But opinions differed about what this art would be like and how it would develop.
According to this paragraph， all of the following were true of American art in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s EXCEPT
○ Most Americans thought art was unimportant.
○ American art generally copied European styles and traditions.
○ Most Americans considered American art inferior to European art.
○ American art was very popular with European audiences.
【错误原因】在解答否定事实信息题时，同学们通常采用的是排除核对的方法。于是在核对A选项时，就特别容易被文中这句’Everybody agreed that the heart and soul of the new country should be reflected in its art’所误导，认为每个人都同意美国的核心应该反映在艺术上。
【例题2】One of the most puzzling aspects of the paintings is their location. Other rock paintings—for example， those of Bushmen in South Africa—are either located near cave entrances or completely in the open. Cave paintings in France and Spain， however， are in recesses and caverns far removed from original cave entrances. This means that artists were forced to work in crampe
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